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TNF-alpha inhibits HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages by inducing the production of RANTES and decreasing C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) expression.

Lane B.R., Markovitz D.M., Woodford N.L., Rochford R., Strieter R.M., Coffey M.J.

The pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection is influenced by the immunoregulatory responses of the host. Macrophages present in the lymphoid tissue are susceptible to infection with HIV-1, but are relatively resistant to its cytopathic effects and serve as a reservoir for the virus during the course of disease. Previous investigators have demonstrated that increased serum levels of TNF-alpha contribute to the clinical symptoms of AIDS and that TNF-alpha stimulates the production of HIV-1 in chronically infected lymphocytic and monocytic cell lines by increasing HIV-1 gene expression. Although previous studies have suggested that TNF-alpha may increase HIV-1 infection of primary human mononuclear cells, some recent studies have indicated that TNF-alpha suppresses HIV-1 infection of macrophages. We now demonstrate that TNF-alpha suppresses HIV-1 replication in freshly infected peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) and alveolar macrophages (AM) in a dose-dependent manner. As TNF-alpha has been shown to increase the production of C-C chemokine receptor (CCR5)-binding chemokines under certain circumstances, we hypothesized that TNF-alpha inhibits HIV-1 replication by increasing the expression of these HIV-suppressive factors. We now show that TNF-alpha treatment of PBM and AM increases the production of the C-C chemokine, RANTES. Immunodepletion of RANTES alone or in combination with macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and -1beta block the ability of TNF-alpha to suppress viral replication in PBM and AM. In addition, we found that TNF-alpha treatment reduces CCR5 expression on PBM and AM. These findings suggest that TNF-alpha plays a significant role in inhibiting monocytotropic strains of HIV-1 by two distinct, but complementary, mechanisms.

J. Immunol. 163:3653-3661(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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