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Toll-like receptors control activation of adaptive immune responses.

Schnare M., Barton G.M., Holt A.C., Takeda K., Akira S., Medzhitov R.

Mechanisms that control the activation of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo are poorly understood. It has been suggested that the initiation of adaptive immune responses is controlled by innate immune recognition. Mammalian Toll-like receptors play an essential role in innate immunity by recognizing conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns and initiating the activation of NF-kappaB and other signaling pathways through the adapter protein, MyD88. Here we show that MyD88-deficient mice have a profound defect in the activation of antigen-specific T helper type 1 (TH1) but not TH2 immune responses. These results suggest that distinct pathways of the innate immune system control activation of the two effector arms of adaptive immunity.

Nat. Immunol. 2:947-950(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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