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Alternative quinone substrates and inhibitors of human electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase.

Simkovic M., Frerman F.E.

Electron-transfer flavoprotein (ETF)-ubiquinone (2,3-dimethoxy-5-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone) oxidoreductase (ETF-QO) is a membrane-bound iron-sulphur flavoprotein that participates in an electron-transport pathway between eleven mitochondrial flavoprotein dehydrogenases and the ubiquinone pool. ETF is the intermediate electron carrier between the dehydrogenases and ETF-QO. The steady-state kinetic constants of human ETF-QO were determined with ubiquinone homologues and analogues that contained saturated n-alkyl substituents at the 6 position. These experiments show that optimal substrates contain a ten-carbon-atom side chain, consistent with a preliminary crystal structure that shows that only the first two of ten isoprene units of co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10) interact with the protein. Derivatives with saturated alkyl side chains are very good substrates, indicating that, unlike other ubiquinone oxidoreductases, there is little preference for the methyl branches or rigidity of the CoQ side chain. Few of the compounds that inhibit ubiquinone oxidoreductases inhibit ETF-QO. Compounds found to act as inhibitors of ETF-QO include 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, a naphthoquinone analogue, 2-(3-methylpentyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol. 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB), which inhibits the mitochondrial bc1 complex and the chloroplast b6 f complex in redox-dependent fashion, can serve as an electron acceptor for human ETF-QO. The observation of simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic patterns and a single type of quinone-binding site, determined by fluorescence titrations of the protein with DBMIB and 6-(10-bromodecyl)ubiquinone, are consistent with one ubiquinone-binding site per ETF-QO monomer.

Biochem. J. 378:633-640(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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