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Regulated expression of matrix metalloproteinases, inflammatory mediators, and endometrial matrix remodeling by 17beta-estradiol in the immature rat uterus.

Russo L.A., Peano B.J., Trivedi S.P., Cavalcanto T.D., Olenchock B.A., Caruso J.A., Smolock A.R., Vishnevsky O., Gardner R.M.

BACKGROUND: Administration of a single physiological dose of 17beta-estradiol (E2:40 microg/kg) to the ovariectomized immature rat rapidly induces uterine growth and remodeling. The response is characterized by changes in endometrial stromal architecture during an inflammatory-like response that likely involves activated matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs). While estrogen is known as an inducer of endometrial growth, its role in specific expression of MMP family members in vivo is poorly characterized. E2-induced changes in MMP-2, -3, -7, and -9 mRNA and protein expression were analyzed to survey regulation along an extended time course 0-72 hours post-treatment. Because E2 effects inflammatory-like changes that may alter MMP expression, we assessed changes in tissue levels of TNF-alpha and MCP-1, and we utilized dexamethasone (600 microg/kg) to better understand the role of inflammation on matrix remodeling. METHODS: Ovariectomized 21 day-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered E2 and uterine tissues were extracted and prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), mRNA extraction and real-time RT-PCR, protein extraction and Western blot, or gelatin zymography. In inhibitor studies, pretreatment compounds were administered prior to E2 and tissues were harvested at 4 hours post-hormone challenge. RESULTS: Using a novel TEM method to quantitatively assess changes in stromal collagen density, we show that E2-induced matrix remodeling is rapid in onset (< 1 hour) and leads to a 70% reduction in collagen density by 4 hours. Matrix remodeling is MMP-dependent, as pretreatment with batimastat ablates the hormone effect. MMP-3, -7, and -9 and inflammatory markers (TNF-alpha and MCP-1) are transiently upregulated with peak expression at 4 hours post-E2 treatment. MMP-2 expression is increased by E2 but highest expression and activity occur later in the response (48 hours). Dexamethasone inhibits E2-modulated changes in collagen density and expression of MMPs although these effects are variable. Dexamethasone upregulates MMP-3 mRNA but not protein levels, inhibiting E2-induced upregulation of MMP-7, and -9, and MCP-1 mRNA and protein but not inhibiting the hormone-induced increase in TNF-alpha mRNA. CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate that E2-regulated endometrial remodeling is rapid in onset (<1 hour) and peak expression of MMPs and inflammatory mediators correlates temporally with the period of lowest stromal collagen density during uterine tissue hypertrophy.

Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol. 7:124-124(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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