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APOBEC3F and APOBEC3G inhibit HIV-1 DNA integration by different mechanisms.

Mbisa J.L., Bu W., Pathak V.K.

APOBEC3F (A3F) and APBOBEC3G (A3G) both are host restriction factors that can potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. Their antiviral activities are at least partially mediated by cytidine deamination, which causes lethal mutations of the viral genome. We recently showed that A3G blocks viral plus-strand DNA transfer and inhibits provirus establishment in the host genome (J. L. Mbisa, R. Barr, J. A. Thomas, N. Vandegraaff, I. J. Dorweiler, E. S. Svarovskaia, W. L. Brown, L. M. Mansky, R. J. Gorelick, R. S. Harris, A. Engelman, and V. K. Pathak, J. Virol. 81:7099-7110, 2007). Here, we investigated whether A3F similarly interferes with HIV-1 provirus formation. We observed that both A3F and A3G inhibit viral DNA synthesis and integration, but A3F is more potent than A3G in preventing viral DNA integration. We further investigated the mechanisms by which A3F and A3G block viral DNA integration by analyzing their effects on viral cDNA processing using Southern blot analysis. A3G generates a 6-bp extension at the viral U5 end of the 3' long terminal repeat (3'-LTR), which is a poor substrate for integration; in contrast, A3F inhibits viral DNA integration by reducing the 3' processing of viral DNA at both the U5 and U3 ends. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a functional C-terminal catalytic domain is more critical for A3G than A3F function in blocking HIV-1 provirus formation. Finally, we showed that A3F has a greater binding affinity for a viral 3'-LTR double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) oligonucleotide template than A3G. Taking these results together, we demonstrated that mechanisms utilized by A3F to prevent HIV-1 viral DNA integration were different from those of A3G, and that their target specificities and/or their affinities for dsDNA may contribute to their distinct mechanisms.

J. Virol. 84:5250-5259(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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