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Polyubiquitin conjugation to NEMO by tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23) is critical in antiviral defense.

Arimoto K., Funami K., Saeki Y., Tanaka K., Okawa K., Takeuchi O., Akira S., Murakami Y., Shimotohno K.

The rapid induction of type I IFN is a central event of the innate defense against viral infections and is tightly regulated by a number of cellular molecules. Viral components induce strong type I IFN responses through the activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and intracellular cytoplasmic receptors such as an RNA helicase RIG-I and/or MDA5. According to recent studies, the NF-kappaB essential modulator (NEMO, also called IKKgamma) is crucial for this virus-induced antiviral response. However, the precise roles of signal activation by NEMO adaptor have not been elucidated. Here, we show that virus-induced IRF3 and NF-kappaB activation depends on the K(lys)-27-linked polyubiquitination to NEMO by the novel ubiquitin E3 ligase triparite motif protein 23 (TRIM23). Virus-induced IRF3 and NF-kappaB activation, as well as K27-linked NEMO polyubiquitination, were abrogated in TRIM23 knockdown cells, whereas TRIM23 knockdown had no effect on TNFalpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation. Furthermore, in NEMO-deficient mouse embryo fibroblast cells, IFN-stimulated response element-driven reporter activity was restored by ectopic expression of WT NEMO, as expected, but only partial recovery by NEMO K165/309/325/326/344R multipoints mutant on which TRIM23-mediated ubiquitin conjugation was substantially reduced. Thus, we conclude that TRIM23-mediated ubiquitin conjugation to NEMO is essential for TLR3- and RIG-I/MDA5-mediated antiviral innate and inflammatory responses.

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107:15856-15861(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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