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Functional characterization of PRKAR1A mutations reveals a unique molecular mechanism causing acrodysostosis but multiple mechanisms causing carney complex.

Rhayem Y., Le Stunff C., Abdel Khalek W., Auzan C., Bertherat J., Linglart A., Couvineau A., Silve C., Clauser E.

The main target of cAMP is PKA, the main regulatory subunit of which (PRKAR1A) presents mutations in two genetic disorders: acrodysostosis and Carney complex. In addition to the initial recurrent mutation (R368X) of the PRKAR1A gene, several missense and nonsense mutations have been observed recently in acrodysostosis with hormonal resistance. These mutations are located in one of the two cAMP-binding domains of the protein, and their functional characterization is presented here. Expression of each of the PRKAR1A mutants results in a reduction of forskolin-induced PKA activation (measured by a reporter assay) and an impaired ability of cAMP to dissociate PRKAR1A from the catalytic PKA subunits by BRET assay. Modeling studies and sensitivity to cAMP analogs specific for domain A (8-piperidinoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) or domain B (8-(6-aminohexyl)aminoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate) indicate that the mutations impair cAMP binding locally in the domain containing the mutation. Interestingly, two of these mutations affect amino acids for which alternative amino acid substitutions have been reported to cause the Carney complex phenotype. To decipher the molecular mechanism through which homologous substitutions can produce such strikingly different clinical phenotypes, we studied these mutations using the same approaches. Interestingly, the Carney mutants also demonstrated resistance to cAMP, but they expressed additional functional defects, including accelerated PRKAR1A protein degradation. These data demonstrate that a cAMP binding defect is the common molecular mechanism for resistance of PKA activation in acrodysosotosis and that several distinct mechanisms lead to constitutive PKA activation in Carney complex.

J. Biol. Chem. 290:27816-27828(2015) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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