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Membrane associated progesterone receptors: promiscuous proteins with pleiotropic functions - focus on interactions with cytochromes P450.

Ryu C.S., Klein K., Zanger U.M.

Membrane-associated progesterone receptors (MAPR) are a group of four rather small, partially homologous proteins, which share a similar non-covalent heme-binding domain that is related to cytochrome b5, a well-known functional interaction partner of microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase systems. Apart from their structural similarities the four proteins progesterone membrane component 1 (PGRMC1, also referred to as IZA, sigma-2 receptor, Dap1), PGRMC2, neudesin (NENF) and neuferricin (CYB5D2) display surprisingly divergent and multifunctional physiological properties related to cholesterol/steroid biosynthesis, drug metabolism and response, iron homeostasis, heme trafficking, energy metabolism, autophagy, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, cell migration, neural functions, and tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The purpose of this mini-review is to briefly summarize the structural and functional properties of MAPRs with particular focus on their interactions with the CYP system. For PGRMC1, originally identified as a non-canonical progesterone-binding protein that mediates some immediate non-genomic actions of progesterone, available evidence indicates mainly activating interactions with steroidogenic CYPs including CYP11A1, CYP21A2, CYP17, CYP19, CYP51A1, and CYP61A1, while interactions with drug metabolizing CYPs including CYP2C2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 were either ineffective or slightly inhibitory. For the other MAPRs the evidence is so far less conclusive. We also point out that experimental limitations question some of the previous conclusions. Use of appropriate model systems should help to further clarify the true impact of these proteins on CYP-mediated metabolic pathways.

Front. Pharmacol. 8:159-159(2017) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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