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Targeting of chitin synthase 3 to polarized growth sites in yeast requires Chs5p and Myo2p.

Santos B., Snyder M.

Chitin is an essential structural component of the yeast cell wall whose deposition is regulated throughout the yeast life cycle. The temporal and spatial regulation of chitin synthesis was investigated during vegetative growth and mating of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by localization of the putative catalytic subunit of chitin synthase III, Chs3p, and its regulator, Chs5p. Immunolocalization of epitope-tagged Chs3p revealed a novel localization pattern that is cell cycle-dependent. Chs3p is polarized as a diffuse ring at the incipient bud site and at the neck between the mother and bud in small-budded cells; it is not found at the neck in large-budded cells containing a single nucleus. In large-budded cells undergoing cytokinesis, it reappears as a ring at the neck. In cells responding to mating pheromone, Chs3p is found throughout the projection. The appearance of Chs3p at cortical sites correlates with times that chitin synthesis is expected to occur. In addition to its localization at the incipient bud site and neck, Chs3p is also found in cytoplasmic patches in cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Epitope-tagged Chs5p also localizes to cytoplasmic patches; these patches contain Kex2p, a late Golgi-associated enzyme. Unlike Chs3p, Chs5p does not accumulate at the incipient bud site or neck. Nearly all Chs3p patches contain Chs5p, whereas some Chs5p patches lack detectable Chs3p. In the absence of Chs5p, Chs3p localizes in cytoplasmic patches, but it is no longer found at the neck or the incipient bud site, indicating that Chs5p is required for the polarization of Chs3p. Furthermore, Chs5p localization is not affected either by temperature shift or by the myo2-66 mutation, however, Chs3p polarization is affected by temperature shift and myo2-66. We suggest a model in which Chs3p polarization to cortical sites in yeast is dependent on both Chs5p and the actin cytoskeleton/Myo2p.

J. Cell Biol. 136:95-110(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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