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Entry version 103 (18 Sep 2019)
Sequence version 1 (01 Mar 2003)
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Protein

Humanin

Gene

MT-RNR2

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the ‘correct annotation’ for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the ‘protein existence’ evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Plays a role as a neuroprotective factor. Protects against death induced by multiple different familial Alzheimer disease genes and amyloid-beta proteins in Alzheimer disease. Suppresses apoptosis by binding to BAX and preventing the translocation of BAX from the cytosol to mitochondria. Binds to IGFBP3 and specifically blocks IGFBP3-induced cell death Induces chemotaxis of mononuclear phagocytes via FPR2. Reduces the aggregation and fibrillary formation by suppressing the effect of APP on mononuclear phagocytes and acts by competitively inhibiting the access of FPRL1 to APP.5 Publications

Caution

The humanin peptide described here has been shown to be biologically active but is the product of a mitochondrial gene, MT-RNR2 (PubMed:12009529). If translation of the mRNA occurs in the mitochondrion rather than in the cytoplasm, then the usage of the mitochondrial genetic code would lead to the production of a shorter peptide lacking the last three C-terminal residues. The mechanisms allowing the production and the secretion of humanin remaining unclear, the possibility exist that the physiologically active humanin peptide is encoded by one of the related genes present in the nuclear genome (PubMed:19477263).2 Publications

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Biological processApoptosis

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactome - a knowledgebase of biological pathways and processes

More...
Reactomei
R-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-444473 Formyl peptide receptors bind formyl peptides and many other ligands

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
HumaninCurated
Alternative name(s):
Humanin mitochondrial1 Publication
Short name:
HNM1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: ‘Name’, ‘Synonyms’, ‘Ordered locus names’ and ‘ORF names’.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:MT-RNR2Imported
Synonyms:HN1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the ‘taxonomic identifier’ or ‘taxid’.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names_and_taxonomy_section">Names and taxonomy</a> section is present for entries that are part of a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/proteomes">proteome</a>, i.e. of a set of proteins thought to be expressed by organisms whose genomes have been completely sequenced.<p><a href='/help/proteomes_manual' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Proteomesi
  • UP000005640 <p>A UniProt <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a> can consist of several components. <br></br>The component name refers to the genomic component encoding a set of proteins.<p><a href='/help/proteome_component' target='_top'>More...</a></p> Componenti: Unplaced

Organism-specific databases

Human Gene Nomenclature Database

More...
HGNCi
HGNC:7471 MT-RNR2

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM)

More...
MIMi
606120 gene

neXtProt; the human protein knowledge platform

More...
neXtProti
NX_Q8IVG9

<p>This section provides information on the location and the topology of the mature protein in the cell.<p><a href='/help/subcellular_location_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte & Seán O’Donoghue; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Secreted

<p>This section provides information on the disease(s) and phenotype(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathology_and_biotech_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/pathology_and_biotech_section">'Pathology and Biotech'</a> section describes the effect of the experimental mutation of one or more amino acid(s) on the biological properties of the protein.<p><a href='/help/mutagen' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Mutagenesisi1 – 6Missing : No effect on binding to BAX. 1 Publication6
Mutagenesisi1 – 3Missing : Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi1 – 2Missing : No effect on neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication2
Mutagenesisi3P → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi4 – 6RGF → AGA: Potentiates neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication3
Mutagenesisi6F → A: Abolishes binding to IGFBP3. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi8C → A, D, E, F, G, I, L, M, N, Q, S, T, V, W or Y: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi8C → H: Significantly reduces the neuroprotective activity. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi8C → K or R: No effect on the neuroprotective activity. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi8C → P: Abolishes neuroprotective activity and interaction with BAX. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi9L → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi9L → R: Abolishes binding to BAX. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi12L → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi13T → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi14S → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi14S → G: Potentiates neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi19 – 24Missing : Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication6
Mutagenesisi19P → A: Abolishes neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication1
Mutagenesisi20 – 24Missing : No effect on neuroprotective activity. 1 Publication5

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNET

More...
DisGeNETi
4550

Orphanet; a database dedicated to information on rare diseases and orphan drugs

More...
Orphaneti
155 NON RARE IN EUROPE: Familial isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMuta curated single-nucleotide variation and disease association database

More...
BioMutai
HGNC:7471

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘PTM / Processing’ section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00000441461 – 24HumaninAdd BLAST24

Proteomic databases

PRoteomics IDEntifications database

More...
PRIDEi
Q8IVG9

ProteomicsDB human proteome resource

More...
ProteomicsDBi
70704

PTM databases

iPTMnet integrated resource for PTMs in systems biology context

More...
iPTMneti
Q8IVG9

Comprehensive resource for the study of protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in human, mouse and rat.

More...
PhosphoSitePlusi
Q8IVG9

<p>This section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms.<p><a href='/help/expression_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Expressioni

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section provides information on the expression of a gene at the mRNA or protein level in cells or in tissues of multicellular organisms. By default, the information is derived from experiments at the mRNA level, unless specified ‘at protein level’. <br></br>Examples: <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P92958#expression">P92958</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8TDN4#expression">Q8TDN4</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/O14734#expression">O14734</a><p><a href='/help/tissue_specificity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the heart, skeletal muscles, kidney and liver. Lesser but significant expression is observed in the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Expressed in the AD brain, where it is found in some of the large intact neurons of the occipital lobes and small and round reactive glial cells in the hippocampus.3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the ‘Expression’ section reports the experimentally proven effects of inducers and repressors (usually chemical compounds or environmental factors) on the level of protein (or mRNA) expression (up-regulation, down-regulation, constitutive expression).<p><a href='/help/induction' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Inductioni

Release is regulated by intracellular mechanism. The intracellular level is regulated by TRIM11 through proteasome-mediated degradation.1 Publication

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function_section">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Interacts with BAX, IGFBP3 and TRIM11.

3 Publications

<p>This subsection of the '<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction_section%27">Interaction</a> section provides information about binary protein-protein interactions. The data presented in this section are a quality-filtered subset of binary interactions automatically derived from the <a href="http://www.ebi.ac.uk/intact/">IntAct database</a>. It is updated on a monthly basis. Each binary interaction is displayed on a separate line.<p><a href='/help/binary_interactions' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binary interactionsi

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

Protein interaction database and analysis system

More...
IntActi
Q8IVG9, 3 interactors

Molecular INTeraction database

More...
MINTi
Q8IVG9

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

Secondary structure

124
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strandPDB Structure known for this area
Show more details

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

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SMRi
Q8IVG9

Database of comparative protein structure models

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ModBasei
Search...

Miscellaneous databases

Relative evolutionary importance of amino acids within a protein sequence

More...
EvolutionaryTracei
Q8IVG9

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni3 – 19Sufficient for neuroprotective activityAdd BLAST17

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and Domains’ section describes the position of regions of compositional bias within the protein and the particular amino acids that are over-represented within those regions.<p><a href='/help/compbias' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Compositional biasi9 – 12Poly-Leu4

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides general information on the biological role of a domain. The term ‘domain’ is intended here in its wide acceptation, it may be a structural domain, a transmembrane region or a functional domain. Several domains are described in this subsection.<p><a href='/help/domain_cc' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini

Largely unstructured in aqueous solution.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the ‘Family and domains’ section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the humanin family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

Database of Orthologous Groups

More...
OrthoDBi
614199at2759

Database for complete collections of gene phylogenies

More...
PhylomeDBi
Q8IVG9

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR028139 Humanin

The PANTHER Classification System

More...
PANTHERi
PTHR33895 PTHR33895, 1 hit

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF15040 Humanin, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence_length">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences_section">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q8IVG9-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20 
MAPRGFSCLL LLTSEIDLPV KRRA
Length:24
Mass (Da):2,687
Last modified:March 1, 2003 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i08B9A778EC13B971
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY029066 mRNA Translation: AAK50430.1
BE899497 mRNA No translation available.

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AY029066 mRNA Translation: AAK50430.1
BE899497 mRNA No translation available.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:

Protein Data Bank Europe

More...
PDBei

Protein Data Bank RCSB

More...
RCSB PDBi

Protein Data Bank Japan

More...
PDBji
Links Updated
PDB entryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1Y32NMR-A1-24[»]
2GD3NMR-A1-24[»]
5GIWNMR-X1-24[»]
SMRiQ8IVG9
ModBaseiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

IntActiQ8IVG9, 3 interactors
MINTiQ8IVG9

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ8IVG9
PhosphoSitePlusiQ8IVG9

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiHGNC:7471

Proteomic databases

PRIDEiQ8IVG9
ProteomicsDBi70704

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Organism-specific databases

DisGeNETi4550

GeneCards: human genes, protein and diseases

More...
GeneCardsi
MT-RNR2
HGNCiHGNC:7471 MT-RNR2
MIMi606120 gene
neXtProtiNX_Q8IVG9
Orphaneti155 NON RARE IN EUROPE: Familial isolated hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

GenAtlas: human gene database

More...
GenAtlasi
Search...

Phylogenomic databases

OrthoDBi614199at2759
PhylomeDBiQ8IVG9

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-HSA-416476 G alpha (q) signalling events
R-HSA-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events
R-HSA-444473 Formyl peptide receptors bind formyl peptides and many other ligands

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRS: a database of human, mouse and fruit fly chimeric transcripts and RNA-sequencing data

More...
ChiTaRSi
MT-RNR2 human
EvolutionaryTraceiQ8IVG9

Pharos

More...
Pharosi
Q8IVG9

Protein Ontology

More...
PROi
PR:Q8IVG9

The Stanford Online Universal Resource for Clones and ESTs

More...
SOURCEi
Search...

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR028139 Humanin
PANTHERiPTHR33895 PTHR33895, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF15040 Humanin, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiHUNIN_HUMAN
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called ‘Primary (citable) accession number’.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q8IVG9
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification (‘Last modified’). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical_and_isoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: September 27, 2004
Last sequence update: March 1, 2003
Last modified: September 18, 2019
This is version 103 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the ‘Entry information’ section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn’t fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
  3. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
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